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Martinson considered this objection, but not seriously.

Rather, he wondered if crime itself is an inevitable outcome of society.

In 1966, the Governor of New York gave Robert Martinson, Douglas Lipton and Judith Wilkes one huge task: figure out what needs to be done to enable prisons to actually rehabilitate prisoners. The results, as he presented them, were depressing.

Are we going to put the first on probation and sentence the latter to a long-term prison?

”By the end of the summary, Martinson indicated that “nothing works.” Although he found a few instances of partial success, he nonetheless concluded that ”I am bound to say that these data, involving over two hundred studies and hundreds of thousands of individuals as they do, are the best available and give us very little reason to hope that we have in fact found a sure way of reducing recidivism through rehabilitation.”You might think this means that prisons simply need to do better rehabilitation, not forsake it all-together.

Interestingly, Martinson’s views were accepted by both progressive and conservative critics of the criminal justice system.

Progressive reformers criticized the rehabilitative ideal because it put disproportionate power in the hands of the state, and they found that the state used those powers in problematic ways.

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