Reading and dating roman imperial coins by zander h klawans
In setting out to write this article, I have the modest goal of helping new collectors of Roman Imperial coins to interpret the inscriptions on their coins.I must state at the outset that there will be nothing new here, I travel the well marked path of the great numismatists who have gone before me. Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins by Zander Klawans has been the starting point for more Roman collectors than perhaps any other book of the last half century and the fact that it is still in print is a testament to it's value.Two tables on dating and a bibliography round out this book.Not a catalog, not for advanced collectors, fun for anyone else, including non-collectors who have an interest in ancient artifacts.While some of the following titles may sometimes appear on the reverse of coins, generally reverse inscriptions are beyond the scope of this article.AUGUSTUS - The name of the first emperor bestowed upon him by the Senate in 27 BC. During the later empire, senior emperors were called the "Augustus" while junior emperors were the "Caesar."CAESAR - The family name of the first imperial dynasty, it became a title used by later emperors.During the later empire, senior emperors were called the "Augustus" while junior emperors were the "Caesar."TRIBUNICIA POTESTATE - Tribune of the Roman people, literally the representative of the people in the government.This title was held for one year and is often followed by a numeral which indicates which term as Tribune the emperor was then serving. CONSUL - The consuls was the chief magistrates of the Roman government. This title is often followed by a numeral which indicates the number of times the emperor had held this position. SENATUS CONSULTUS - Usuailly appears on the reverse of bronze coins of the early empire.
The Romans of the early imperial period were know for their veristic portraiture and until about AD 250 most coins can be identified by the style of the portrait alone.They depicted the god Mars on the obverse and an eagle with the word Roma on the reverse. Aureus: the base gold coin; originally worth 20 denarii Quinarius: cast in silver and gold; both worth two sestertii Solidus: introduced by Constantine I to replace the aureus; worth one denarius Semis: worth 1/2denarius or 1/2 solidus Triens: worth 1/3 denarius Chrysostom Graves received his Bachelor of Arts in American studies from Eckerd College where he graduated magna cum laude.From 2007-2009, he published his own language textbooks while also contributing to "Missao Vida," a monthly review of the mission field in Brazil.It had become fashionable to depict a representation of the emperor rather than a true portrait and thus we rely more heavily on the inscriptions on the later imperial coinage.As an aid in doing this I recommend Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins by Zander H.