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70 CE] both brothers had 'drunk the cup' that Jesus had drunk and had been 'baptized with the baptism' with which he had been baptized." Since the patristic tradition is unanimous in identifying the beloved disciple with John, at least this evidence discredits the patristic tradition concerning the authorship of the Gospel of John.

If the author of the Gospel of John were an eyewitness, presumably the author would have known that Jesus and his compatriots were permitted to enter the synagogues.

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Kysar states that most scholars today see the historical setting of the Gospel of John in the expulsion of the community from the synagogue (op. The high claims made for Jesus and the response to them (), the polemic against "the Jews" (, , , ), and the assertion of a superiority of Christian revelation to the Hebrew (, -50, ) show that "the Johannine community stood in opposition to the synagogue from which it had been expelled." (p.

918) Kysar states concerning the dating of the Gospel of John: "Those who relate the expulsion to a formal effort on the part of Judaism to purge itself of Christian believers link the composition of the gospel with a date soon after the Council of Jamnia, which is supposed to have promulgated such an action. Those inclined to see the expulsion more in terms of an informal action on the part of a local synagogue are free to propose an earlier date." (p.

922) Norman Perrin believes that the redactor who added the sacramental passages to the Gospel of John also authored the first epistle of John, in which the sacraments are emphasized. This seems likely, until we reflect on the oddity of people who purportedly deny that 'Jesus Christ came in the flesh' citing a gospel that declares 'the Word became flesh,' and 'whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood possesses eternal life.' Brown's argument founders on his insistence that 'John exactly as we have it' (108, his italics) was the text used by those who left the Johannine community.

Helms adduces evidence that there were divisions over the interpretation of John at an early period, as early as the writing of the epistles 1 John and 2 John. Brown refuses to 'exclude certain passages from the Fourth Gospel on the grounds that they were probably not in the tradition known to the secessionists but were added by the redactor (either later or as anti-secessionist revision)' (1979, 109).

Furthermore, there is no account of the baptism of Jesus, and there is confusion about whether or not Jesus practiced baptism (compare and 4:2). is part of the appendix of the gospel and should not be assumed to have come from the same hand as that responsible for the body of the gospel.Neither of these passages, therefore, persuades many Johannine scholars that the author claims eyewitness status.But at one several points it is stated that those who acknowledged Jesus as the Christ during the life of Jesus were put out of the synagogue.This anachronism is inconceivable as the product of an eyewitness. The word aposynagogos is found three times in the gospel (, , 16:2).

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