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As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women.
Both XX males and XX females in the C57BL/6 genetic background consumed more food than XY mice (males and females) during the light portion of the day.
Similarly, mice with 2 X chromosomes in another mutant model (Y* mice; see for details) consumed more food than mice with a single X chromosome (10).
In FCG mice, a nonfunctional mutation of the sex-determining region of Y ( transgene to unlink gonadal sex from sex chromosomes.
Therefore, the FCG generates the following genotypes: XX females, XY females, XX males, and XY males.
We also found that the relative level of expression of 2 X inactivation–escaping genes, Male and female mice from the Y* line on the C57BL/6Ei J background were used in experiments 1 and 2.
The Y* breeding colony was originally started with B6Ei.
Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene ( expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties.
Activation of cell surface GH receptors (GHRs) increases liver expression and secretion of IGF-I (18).
Initially, discoveries of GHRs in brains of rats and humans were perplexing, because GH is a large protein that cannot passively diffuse across the blood-brain barrier (19–22).
Sex differences in energy metabolism, cultural roles and activities, appetite, body composition, and excess fat deposition and distribution are considered among the likely contributing factors.
Studies in humans and other mammals indicate that circulating gonadal hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, affect many of these sexually dimorphic body traits (2).