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C., just 12 years earlier than Jacobovici's circa 1500 B. the Hyksos Expulsion with the Exodus than Jacobovici's 1500 BCE Exodus date which was simply _his attempt_ to bring the 1446 BCE Exodus "somewhat closer in time" to Ahmose I and the Hyksos Expulsion.My below article notes that a number of scholars, Josephus (79 AD?

Please be advised that I _now_ understand that a "conflation and fusion" exists of events appearing in the Bible's Exodus narratives: Sites like Arad and Ai which were destroyed in the 3rd millennium BCE, the Hyksos expulsion of 1540-1530 BCE, Ramesside Era events in the Sinai and Arabah, and places existing only in Late Iron II, 640-562 BCE.

Jewish rabbinical calculations from the Hebrew Massoretic Text showed that the world began 3,740 years before the Christian Era. Now, 1550 or 1540/39 BCE appear in scholarly articles as founding dates alongside 1570 BCE (its all rather confusing). The period bridging the end of the era of the Judges (as described in the book of Judges) and the enthronement of Solomon comprises 40 years of the leadership of Eli (1 Samuel ), 20 years of the people following the Lord under Samuel (1 Samuel 7:2), 2 years of Saul's reign (1 Samuel 13:1), and 40 years of David's reign (2 Samuel 5:4). James Jack argued for a mid-fifteenth century date based on biblical data and what he believed to corroborating Egyptian evidence. (Solomon's 4th year) we arrive at an Exodus date of 1596 or 1616 B. Those who accept a 15th-century date for the Exodus, have to harmonize the text by presupposing overlaps in the years some of the judges ruled in Israel... Hoffmeier says that the biblical data would put the Exodus during the Hyksos’ occupation of Egypt."Gooder (2000) on _more_ than 553 years elapsing between the Exodus and Solomon's fourth year (which, if added to Solomon's 4th year would date the Exodus not later than 1519 B. This would place the Exodus 480 years earlier in 1446 B. And this is the only foreign mass-migration, an exodus from ancient Egypt, for which there is any evidence at all in the archaeological records." Later scholars, like Jack, have noted that 1 Kings 6:1 states that 480 years elapsed from the Exodus to the fourth year of Solomon's reign and the building of the Temple.

Roman Catholic tradition, based on the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible, placed the creation in 5199 B. And most English-speaking Protestants accepted the seventeenth-century Archbishop James Ussher's calculation of the time of creation, 4004 B. Ussher's dates were placed in the margins of early eighteenth-century editions of the King James version of the Bible, making them seem even more authoritive." Anyone who has studied the chronology issues and problems arising in Biblical as well as Egyptological studies is well aware that a consensus does _not_ exist for any "hard dates" in regards to when the Exodus occured (if it occured) or just when the Hyksos Expulsion happened. with the expulsion of the Hyksos at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty." (p.71, William G. "Is There Any Archaeological Evidence For The Exodus? So, according to these detailed chronological data, the period from the Exodus to the enthronement of Solomon must have spanned at least 40 5 40 20 2 40= Another complication is disagreement about Solomon's fourth year, when the Temple was begun (1 Kings 6:1 claiming 480 years elapsed from the Exodus to the Temple's founding). Based on the Masoretic text of 1 Kings 6:1, which dates the departure from Egypt at 480 years before Solomon's fourth regnal year, Jack concluded that 1445 B. was the Exodus date since Solomon's acession date, 970 BC could be securely fixed (his fourth year being 966/967), thanks to synchronisms between Biblical and Assyrian texts." (p.124, Hoffmeier)"However, as Jack showed, if all the periods are added together, such as the forty years in Sinai, the lengths of the Judges, and periods of peace between the Judges, plus the length of David's reign, According to Professor Mariottini Professor Hoffmeier has suggested 630 or 650 years may have elapsed from the Exodus to Solomon's 4th year and the building of the Temple at Jerusalem. C., it could have been earlier):"The fourth year of Solomon's reign is commonly dated to around 966 B. Some scholars date Solomon's fourth year to circa 966 BCE, by adding 480 years to this date and come up with an Exodus circa 1446 BCE.

Catholic scholars fix creation at 5199 BC instead of 4004 BC. Because the Septuagint gives different ages for the pre-flood patriarchs which are in CONTRADICTION to ages preserved in the King James Bible which is derived from a Massoretic Text. Kitchen, "Egypt, History of (Chronology)." David Noel Freedman, Editor. Some have associated the foundation date of the New Dynasty with the expulsion of the Hyksos from the Delta. Kenneth Kitchen and James Hoffmeier favor Ahmose's reign as ca. The bulk of these data comes from the book of Judges, which lists the alternating periods of alien domination over Israel and independent rule by Israelite judges, with the total length of these periods adding up to at least 410 years. There are, however, numerous problems with a fifteenth-century date for the exodus and settlement.

"Most scholars agreed that the world was only about six thousand years old, though there was considerable disagreement over the exact date of the creation. Before 1985 (when Krauss made his proposal) earlier dates for the 18th Dynasty's founding were in favor, 1580 or 1570 BCE. 1550-1525 BCE (placing the end of the Hyksos dynasty as either 1550 or 1540 BCE), Krauss prefers 1539-1514 BCE for Ahmoses' reign (cf. The period bridging between the Exodus and the commencement of the era of the Judges (with the death of Joshua the son of Nun) comprises 40 years of the Israelites' wanderings in the desert prior to the arrival to the eastern bank of the Jordan river (Exodus , Numbers -34, , Deuteronomy 1:3, 2:7, 8:2-4, 29:4) and the leadership of Joshua, which must have lasted at least 5 years. "It appears to me that a general division of the entire MBII period into three phases (A, B, C) is well documented on the basis of stratigraphy, pottery typology, and development of other artifacts..third phase- MBIIC correlates with the Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty (until "... Hoffmeier correctly points out that the dates found in the book of Joshua through 1 Kings do not add up to 480 years. Hoffmeier calculated the number of years for Joshua, the judges and the kings of Israel up to Solomon and the numbers . For many years, this date was commonly accepted as correct and has been supported more recently by J. One of these is that, if the generations betwen the exodus and the fourth year of Solomon's reign are combined, "Theban royal texts tell of their final victories over the northerners in the 1530's B. The victory inscriptions of these southern pharaohs tell us they threw these foreigners out of Egypt then pursued them to Canaan and beyond.

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